Ch 9 Intro, Concl, Transitions
times of intros --
- first impression
- sets expectations
- needs to grab attention
- time for positive ethos
- id with audience through anecdote
- be direct (this will be about X)
- foreground importance (if appropriate)
- wack claims
- good stories (not so good for short speech)
- avoid rhetorical questions
careful with humor ("at best a joke delays the "real"
speech, and at worst it detracts from the speech" (231))
intro in relation to body
PREVIEW THE TOPIC and PROVIDE HOOKS
usually it's good to practice, but that goes against the
I'm somewhat against quotes in the end. Be careful. This
should be about you.
- they're expected
- should be put to good use -- recency strategy... close with recap
after giving out signs that you're closing
- "final appeal"
- DO NOT repeat points and argument. Sum and wrap up.
Hook back in, and leave audience with those hooks.
Do summarize at least insofar as providing hooks back into your main
again compose after body
- personal reference
- challenge for audience
- position future vision
Ch 8 The
organization provides structure, and structure makes your
it's easier to remember something put in order than something coming at
good organization helps listeners
predict your next point. they interact with your speech, and
become, literally, active listeners.
good flow is also convincing. if your points proceed naturally,
they will add to your ability to persuade
stuart kim and the united way
checklist for id'ing main ideas on 197
eliminate overly similar ideas
keep ideas simple but exhaustive
repetition through parallelism
pick crucial topics
ensure ideas don't argue with
primary effect vs. recency effect (first or last point strongest to
take advantage of...)
organizational patterns on page 209
pattern? (ruling out all alternatives)
support requirements directly related to audience.
you must analyze your audience before
if they're not going to buy in, you'll need more support, natch
shorter generally better
-- tough to do in a speech versus a paper.