"a situation in which people's understanding can be changed through
The four criteria in our book's definition of the public sphere are as follows:
- affects people collectively
- cooperative action necessary
decision requires subjective judgment
a decision is required (soon-ish)
How different from "great dramatic or literary works" (12)?
- Emphasis with public speaking is to influence collective
bodies, not individuals.
- Explain corporation
- inability to "win" every audience member
Why are we interested in a rhetorically well-functioning student body?
"Large numbers of people see no point in participating in the public
forum because they think they are powerless to effect any public
change" (12). Discuss.
"Without a well-cultivated public forum, the two alternatives are
autocratic rule and anarchy
"Four basic factors that determine the success of any rhetorical
audiences and speech
etc, etc, etc)
- some pointers for ensuring you have a receptive audience on
- ceremonial -- ritualistic/performative ("present")
- deliberative -- about undecided ("future")
- forensic -- about lessons from what has already been done
- exigence -- "problem that cannot be avoided but can be solved"
Speech (~logos & pathos)
- plagiarism (23), print vs. spoken
- speech goals (18)
facts vs. opinions
A quick introduction to the
Example impromptu-assignment style topics from chapter 1:
security on campus walkways at night 13
campus construction (19)
Emphasis is on organization...
Preview of points
Transition to Point 1
... and timing.
Point 1 (with transition)
Point 2 (with transition)
Point 3 (with transition)
Review of points
Action item/restatement of thesis with your intended take-home message
for your audience clearly stated
Closure device (the mirror image of an attention grabber, often related)
8-10 min prep
Intro -- 45 sec
Points -- 45, 45, 45 (2:15 total)
Conclusion -- 30-45
3:30-3:45 min total.
Activity Part 1
- Come up with a topic of local importance
- Outline why you buy in to the importance of this topic.
- Outline why you think we
will buy in to this topic.
Share those topics with each other in
your small groups.
Strategies for planning and developing your
How to develop and plan your speech:
First, determine your speech topic.
Next, determine your speech's general purpose
using the seven choices,
- Providing new info
- Agenda setting
- Creating positive or negative feeling
- Strengthening or...
- Weakening commitment
- Conversion (other goals are partial goals... do pool analogy...
but this locks action. Um, sales.)
- Call to action
-- your general purpose, but cut to exhibit the
Craft your thesis
Think about the specifics required for
your argument (Toulmin). Flesh them out.
Book example (115-6):
Cheating at the university
To provide new
listeners of widespread cheating on this
students engage in cheating than most of us think.
possible issues to explore:
- How many is "far more"? Who are "most of us"? How do
we know? What's the authority?
- What is the definition of "cheating"? To what extent must
cheating happen to be included in my definition?
- Is cheating on our campus different than others? What makes
our cheating worthy of my audience's time?
- Challenge assumptions -- What makes cheating worth the resources
needed to combat it?
Activity Part 2
- Pick a topic from part 1 of this activity that isn't yours.
- Now make a "talking points" or presentation outline (pgs 267-271
of your book) with your intro, 3 points, and a conclusion
- Prepare to present your presentation outline to the class.
For next class:
Read Ch 8, 9, and "Presentation
Outline" section from Ch 10 (267-271)
Fill out and return the student
on page xiii of your handbook.
Bring in newspaper article of issue with local interest for our next